Note: This page used to be on Tripod but is no longer there. It is adapted from the work of Martin Ryder of the University of Colorado at Denver's Education Department:
Models, like myths and metaphors, help us to make sense of our world. Whether it is derived from whim or from serious research, a model offers its user a means of comprehending an otherwise incomprehensible problem. An instructional design model gives structure and meaning to an I.D. problem, enabling the would-be designer to negotiate her design task with a semblance of conscious understanding. Models help us to visualize the problem, to break it down into discrete, manageable units.

The value of a specific model is determined within the context of use. Like any other instrument, a model assumes a specific intention of its user. A model should be judged by how it mediates the designer's intention, how well it can share a work load, and how effectively it shifts focus away from itself toward the object of the design activity.

Models, like other tools, shape the consciousness of those who use them. The tool molds the wielder who molds the tool, ad infinitum. Our models frame the reality we impose on the world and the experience that is forged out of their use brings us to higher levels of understanding about the design problem, but only within the framework of the specific models we adopt.


Some Basics

What is design? (Bilton)
What is Instructional Design? (Berger and Kam) (McNeil) (Leigh)
History of Instructional Design (Douglas Leigh) (Sara McNeil)
What is Instructional Design Theory? (McGriff) (de Lisle)
What is technology? (Bilton) (Ryder)
What is educational technology? (AECT) (Ely) (Rowntree)
What is Instructional Technology? (Seels & Richey) (USU) (SJSU (Christopher) (Ely) (RSVP) (Vidyakas)

Instructional Design Knowledge Base

George Siemens' Overview of Instructional Design


The Models:



Objectivist, Behaviorist, and Modern Models

Algo-Heuristic Theory (L. Landa)
ADDIE: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation

Behaviorism* see Comparative Summaries
Criterion Referenced Instruction (Robert Mager)
Component Display Theory (Dave Merrill)
Dick and Carey
Elaboration Theory (Charles Reigeluth)
see Front End Analysis
Robert Gagne
Instructional Systems Design ISD
Objective Taxonomies* Cognitive Domain (Benjamin Bloom)
Organizational Elements Model (Roger Kaufman)

* What is Rapid Prototyping? general definition (André Dolenc)

Cognitivist, Constructivist and Postmodern Models


**Action Research** (Participatory Design Models)
**Activity Theory** (artifact-mediated and object-oriented action)
Anchored Instruction (John Bransford)
Andrgogy (Malcom Knowles)
Cognitivism* Cognitive approach (Judith Conway)
Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins, Brown and Newman)
  • Collins, Brown, and Hulum (1991) Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible (review by Dan Watola)
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship (Judith Conway)
  • Berryman (1994) Cognitive Apprenticeship Models
  • summary (Univ of Massachusetts)
  • summary (Univ of Nevada)
  • summary (Ray Jones, Poppy Pickard)
  • Clancey (1992) Representations of knowing: In defense of cognitive apprenticeship
  • Informatique et transformation de la pédagogie (Collins, Brown and Newman)
  • Snyder, Farrell and Baker (2000) Online Mentoring: A Case Study Involving Cognitive Apprenticeship and a Technology-Enabled Learning Environment
  • Wilson and Cole (1996) Cognitive Teaching Models
  • Duncan (1996) Cognitive Apprenticeship in Classroom Instruction: Implications for Industrial and Technical Teacher Education
  • Conway (1997) Educational Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction
  • Casey ((2000) Using Case-Based Reasoning and Cognitive Apprenticeship to Teach Criminal Profiling and Internet Crime Investigation
  • Resnick (1987) Learning In School and Out (Review by Belinda Aboshanab)
Cognitive Flexibility Theory (Rand Spiro)
Generative Learning
CSCL Computer Supported Collaborative Learning
  • CSCL (Lorraine Sherry)
  • Gifford and Enyedy (1999) Activity Centered Design: Towards a Theoretical Framework for CSCL
  • Bannon (1989) Issues in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
CSILE Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environments (Scardamalia and Bereiter)
Conversation Theory (Gordon Pask)
Discovery Learning (Jerome Bruner)
Inquiry Teaching

Interpretation Construction (ICON) Design Model (Black and McClintock)
Mind Tools (David Jonassen)
**The Minimalist Model** (John Carroll)
Maria Montessori
Problem-Based Learning
  • PBL Overview (Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction)
  • PBL Overview (Wheeling Jesuit University)
  • PBL Overview (Jee Park)
  • Ambury (1992) Beginning to Tutor Problem-Based Learning (CASAE paper)
  • Savery and Duffy (1995) Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework (review by Chuck Ferguson)
  • Duffy (1996) Problem Based Learning: Research and Practice (Course Description)
  • Lewis (1997) Distributed Course Delivery for Problem Based Learning
  • Camp (1996) Problem-Based Learning: A Paradigm Shift or a Passing Fad?
  • White (1996) Dan Tries Problem-Based Learning: A Case Study
  • Nowskowski et.al (1996) Learner-Centered Classrooms, Problem-Based Learning, and the Construction of Understanding and Meaning by Students
  • Scott (1994) Problem-based Learning in Dental Education
  • Shanley (1996) Why Problem-based Learning?
  • Sample PBL Problems (University of Deleware)
The Project Method (Kilpatrick and Dewey) Self-initiated, wholistic, purposeful activity

Role Play
  • Bird Play From A Theoretical Point of View
  • Choi (2000) Let's Play : Children with Autism and Their Play Partners Together
  • Geier (2001) Role-playing in Educational Environments
  • Hume and Wells (1992) Making Lives Meaningful: Extending Perspectives Through Role Play
  • Ip, Linser and Jasinski (2002) The Zen Of Being An Effective Moderator In Online Role-Play Simulations
  • Ip, Linser, and Naidu (2001) Simulated Worlds: Rapid Generation Of Web-Based Role-Play
  • Naidu, Ip, and Linser (2000) Dynamic Goal-Based Role-Play Simulation on the Web: A Case Study
  • Rieber (1996) Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games
Roger Schank

Schema Theory
SER Model (Gerhart Fisher)
  • Fisher (1996) Making Learning a Part of Life: Beyond the Giftwraping Approach to Technology
Situated Cognition
Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura)
Structural Knowledge (David Jonassen)
  • Plotnick (1997) Concept Mapping: A Graphical System for Understanding the Relationship Between Concepts
  • Lanzing (1996) Concept Mapping Homepage
  • Gaines and Shaw Concept Maps as Hypermedia Components

Connectivist Instructional Design




Comparative Models





see also...